Homeland Security Operational Analysis Center, Allies Growing Closer: Japan-Europe Security Ties in the Age of Strategic Competition, Autonomous Vehicles and the Future of Auto Insurance. Son preference in Pakistan: an analysis of intentions vs. behavior. Naima Hafeez and Climent Quintana-Domeque () . The principal finding is the presence of a strong son preference both for the husband and for the wife. Vaccine Nationalism Has Real Economic Consequences, Getting to Know Military Caregivers and Their Needs, Helping Coastal Communities Plan for Climate Change, Improving Psychological Wellbeing and Work Outcomes in the UK. Continuation of the fertility transition may be difficult unless the degrees of differential stopping behavior and differential contraceptive use decline. Conclusion: There was candid son preference among the respondents. Son preference persists and is poignantly reflected in Pakistan’s distorted child sex ratios: notably, India’s current challenge of pronounced SRB distortions was preceded by a similar skewing of the child sex ratio; the sex ratio at birth was upset only after early fetal sex detection technology became available in the 1980s (Population Council, forthcoming a). Increasing son preference and neglect of daughters is occurring in many states in India, despite the advances made in education, literacy, healthcare, and income attainment. The RAND Corporation is a nonprofit institution that helps improve policy and decisionmaking through research and analysis. RAND is nonprofit, nonpartisan, and committed to the public interest. Son preference in Pakistan : an analysis of intentions versus behaviour. Son preference is a form of gender based discrimination which is a well-recognized fact that has existed in all parts of the globe. Preference for a first-born boy in Western societies. In summary, in Pakistan gender roles are exceptionally clearly defined. The RAND Corporation is a research organization that develops solutions to public policy challenges to help make communities throughout the world safer and more secure, healthier and more prosperous. NIH The role of son preference in reproductive behaviour in Pakistan / R. Hussain, F. F. Fikree and H. W. Berendes We investigate gender-biased breastfeeding in Pakistan using data from the 2006–07 Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey. Results: Parity progression is driven by son preference to some extent in all five countries studied. Abstract . Naima Hafeez & Climent Quintana-Domeque, 2018. A statement issued today by OHCHR, UNFPA, UNICEF, UN Women and the WHO* reviews the evidence behind the causes, consequences and lessons learned regarding “son preference” or sex selection favouring boys in many parts of South, East and Central Asia, where ratios as high as 130 boys for every 100 girls have been observed. Guru Nanak J Sociol. Clipboard, Search History, and several other advanced features are temporarily unavailable. Continuation of the fertility transition may be difficult unless the degrees of differential stopping behavior and differential contraceptive use decline. 1984;5:185-200. The association of son preference with parity progression and modern contraceptive use has become stronger in Pakistan. Another explanation is that although parents indicate that they want more boys than girls, their actions do not reflect this preference because of the dominating influence of overall desires for numbers of children regardless of the sex of those children. A recently published study found that Pakistani couples express an approximately three-to-one preference for sons over daughters. A skewed sex ratio and shortage of girls is detrimental to the health and welfare of women, as well as to the human development of India.  |  Son Preference in Pakistan; A Myth or Reality.  |  NLM Author D De Tray. Son preference, fertility desire and contraceptive use in two largest cities of Pakistan. The analysis is based on two rounds of surveys conducted in 1990±91 and 1995 of a cohort of married women aged 15±49 years. Pakistani women also seem to have exceptionally poor mental health. Evidence of Son Preference and Resulting Demographic and Health Outcomes in Pakistan ... Like much of South Asia, Pakistan has a highly patriarchal society. De Tray D. Research in Population Economics, 01 Jan 1984, 5: 185-200 PMID: 12266412 . This site needs JavaScript to work properly. PMID: 12266412 Abstract PIP: The study assesses the extent to which the very strong expressed preference for sons in Pakistan influences couples' actual fertility behavior. 66, issue 2, 179 - 215 . The results suggest that with regard to actual behavior, Pakistani preferences for having children may dominate preferences for children of a certain type. Papers were less formal than reports and did not require rigorous peer review. The results strongly suggest that Pakistani couples do not translate their stated preferences into behavior. Son preference in Pakistan: An analysis of intentions versus behaviour (Rand paper series) Atif K (1), Ullah MZ (2), Afsheen A (3), Naqvi SA (4), Raja ZA (5), Niazi SA (6). At least 2 explanations are possible for this inconsistency between intentions and behavior with each having a different implication for population policy and for the future of population growth in general. We test the validity of their theory in Pakistan, where parents’ stated preference for sons is twice as large as in India. The Khan and Sirageldin results were extended by assessing the extent to which couples translated their very strong expressed preferences for sons into actual behavior. No overall relationship was found between the sex composition of children and subsequent fertility behavior. Drawing upon decades of experience, RAND provides research services, systematic analysis, and innovative thinking to a global clientele that includes government agencies, foundations, and private-sector firms. Do family planning programs affect fertility preferences? This research has found that son preference has increased in Pakistan during 1990 to 2007. According to Mahmood and Mahmood (1995), the Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey (PDHS) of 1990-1991 shows that one-third of women with no children have a desire to have a son, whereas the preference for a daughter is negligible. The first explanation is that in traditional societies such as Pakistan couples are unable to control their fertility adequately. In other words, couples may prefer boy to girl children, but they would still rather have many girl children than few or no children at all. The Pardee RAND Graduate School (PRGS.edu) is the largest public policy Ph.D. program in the nation and the only program based at an independent public policy research organization—the RAND Corporation. This paper explores the extent to which couples' actual behavior is consistent with this expressed preference, and reviews a number of analytical methods for estimating the effect of sex of children on fertility behavior. This cohort study evaluates the role of the sex of children on reproductive intentions and subsequent behaviour of women in urban slums of Karachi, Pakistan. CONTEXT: Son preference exerts a strong influence over contraceptive and fertility decisions in many South Asian countries. Please enable it to take advantage of the complete set of features!  |  Santa Monica, CA: RAND Corporation, 1980. https://www.rand.org/pubs/papers/P6504.html. *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. RAND's publications do not necessarily reflect the opinions of its research clients and sponsors. According to Dictionary Online: 'Gender Discrimination is a situation in which someone is treated less well because of their sex, usually when a woman is treated less well than a man. PIP: CONCLUSIONSThe association of son preference with parity progression and modern contraceptive use has become stronger in Pakistan. The sex of surviving children is an important determinant of reproductive behaviour in South Asia in general and Pakistan in particular. Though a growing body of literature examines the drivers and socioeconomic impacts of phenomenon in case of China and India, work on other Asian countries is scarce. We exami The probit maximum likelihood estimation procedure is utilized, and the analysis is based on cross-sectional data on 2,910 currently married women obtained from a national survey conducted in Pakistan in 1968–1969. Assistant Policy Researcher, RAND; Ph.D. We test the validity of their theory in Pakistan, where parents’ stated preference for sons is twice as large as in India. This report is part of the RAND Corporation paper series. Khan and Sirageldin's work on sex preference and desires for additional children in Pakistan were reviewed, followed by consideration of several methods of testing the relationship between sex of children and subsequent fertility and presentation of the results of several other tests of the hypothesis that sex composition of children affects actual fertility behavior. Son Preference in Pakistan:A Myth or Reality Objective: To analyze desire for sons/daughters among ladies of Peshawar, Pakistan, with a view to rule out son preference and to study impact of various demographic characteristics on the subject. CMI WORKING PAPER SON-PREFERENCE, NUMBER O F CHILDREN, EDUCATIO N AND OCCUPATIONAL CHOICE IN RURAL NEPAL WP 2012:8 2 countries where later born children of both gender benefit, see Sawada and Lokshin (2009) data on from Pakistan, and Ota and Moffatt (2007) on data from India. This explanation is consistent with theoretical findings. Our replication exercise strongly supports their theory: mothers breastfeed daughters significantly less (especially if there are no elder sons) to increase the chances of becoming pregnant again with the hope to conceive a son. Abstract: We investigate gender-biased breastfeeding in Pakistan using data from the 2006–07 Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey. The Khan and Sirageldin (1977) results can be translated into a stopping rule which states that the higher the proportion of boys in a family, the less likely a couple is to go on to have another child. It is found that son preference is also a major factor in determining use of permanent contraceptive methods in every country apart from Afghanistan. Objective: To analyze desire for sons/daughters among ladies of Peshawar, Pakistan, with a view to rule out son preference and to study impact of various demographic characteristics on the subject. De Tray, Dennis N., Son preference in Pakistan: an analysis of intentions versus behavior. USA.gov. A recently published study found that Pakistani couples express an approximately three-to-one preference for sons over daughters. Tray, Dennis de. In 1990-1991 son preference ratio was 38.3% and increased in 2006-2007 to 47.5%. Son preference in Pakistan : an analysis of intentions versus behavior . Son preference and reproductive behaviour in rural Punjab. Neglect and discrimination on the basis of gender has been quite common in traditional societies. Son preference encompasses not only a preference to have more sons than daughters, but also discrimination against daughters once they are born. This cohort study evaluates the role of the sex of children on reproductive intentions and subsequent behaviour of women in urban slums of Karachi, Pakistan. Socioeconomic Correlates of Contraceptive Use among the Ethnic Tribal Women of Bangladesh: Does Sex Preference Matter? It is indeed a gri… Get this from a library! Gender discrimination can be attenuated by adequately addressing son preference at all tiers. Son preference and daughter neglect prevails from birth [ 15 ]. "Son Preference and Gender-Biased Breastfeeding in Pakistan," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. Such phenomenon is present in all classes of the society and exhibits in several forms. Son Preference in Pakistan: An Analysis of Intentions vs. Several fertility measures and estimation techniques were used to determine whether subsequent fertility behavior is influenced by the sex composition of previous births. Objective: To analyze desire for sons/daughters among ladies of Peshawar, Pakistan, with a view to rule out son preference and to study impact of various demographic characteristics on the subject. Son preference in Pakistan: An analysis of intentions versus behaviour (Rand paper series) [De Tray, Dennis N] on Amazon.com. The association is particularly strong in Nepal, India and Pakistan. Share this article Share with email Share with twitter Share with linkedin Share with facebook. 66(2), pages 179-215.Handle: RePEc:ucp:ecdecc:doi:10.1086/695137 DOI: 10.1086/695137 The policy implications of this view suggest family planning and contraceptive distribution programs aimed at reducing the cost of achieving whatever desired family size couples want. The probit maximum likelihood estimation procedure is utilized, and the analysis is based on cross-sectional data on 2,910 currently married women obtained from a national survey conducted in Pakistan in 1968-1969. HHS Year of publication: Gender disadvantage has pervasive effects across the life course, much of it mediated through poor care and restricted opportunity. A literature review. In the modern era some societies may not be familiar with the concept of son preference, but in Pakistan preference for male child over female is culturally imbedded. Downloadable! Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences. Son preference leads to discrimination against girls, which impact on different domains of their life. For example, in Pakistan, women and girls have less access to health and medical services than do their male counterparts. Candidate, Pardee RAND Graduate School. Our replication exercise strongly supports their theory: mothers breastfeed daughters significantly less (especially if there are no elder sons) to increase the chances of becoming pregnant again with the hope to conceive a son. Son Preference and Gender-Biased Breastfeeding in Pakistan. Subscribe to the weekly Policy Currents newsletter to receive updates on the issues that matter most. Almost 10% increase in son preference can be seen in Pakistan between 1990 until 2007. Candidate, Pardee RAND Graduate School, Assistant Policy Researcher; Ph.D. This paper explores the extent to which couples' actual behavior is consistent with this expressed preference, and reviews a number of analytical methods for estimating the effect of sex of children on fertility behavior. [Dennis N De Tray; Rand Corporation.] Without Unemployment Benefits, How Might Americans Make Ends Meet? Gender preference and birth spacing in Matlab, Bangladesh. The principal finding is the presence of a strong son preference both for the husband and for the wife. J Family Reprod Health. 1995 Oct;16(2):31-40. No abstract provided. The paper was a product of the RAND Corporation from 1948 to 2003 that captured speeches, memorials, and derivative research, usually prepared on authors' own time and meant to be the scholarly or scientific contribution of individual authors to their professional fields. Behavior Res Popul Econ. The study assesses the extent to which the very strong expressed preference for sons in Pakistan influences couples' actual fertility behavior. (2016) Atif et al. Also available in print form. Was Unemployment Insurance Designed to Exclude Black Workers? This extension was based on a sample of women, most of whom have completed fertility (all were aged 35 or older) and all of whom had at least 1 live birth. This finding, based on intentions, conflicts with the results based on actual behavior presented here. 2013 Jun;7(2):73-86. National Center for Biotechnology Information, Unable to load your collection due to an error, Unable to load your delegates due to an error. Economic Development and Cultural Change, 2018, vol. As a part of the Pakistani society, ... how others’ wants were morphed into my preference for a son is a process not unfamiliar to most of the Pakistani population. 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