For those three thousand coherent addresses I had not once a single written or printed line or any notes whatever on the platform; and yet there has never been a moment when I have had to stop for a name or for the connection of the thought. Hugo Münsterberg (/ ˈ m ʊ n s t ər b ɜːr ɡ /; June 1, 1863 – December 16, 1916) was a German-American psychologist.He was one of the pioneers in applied psychology, extending his research and theories to industrial/organizational (I/O), legal, medical, clinical, educational and business settings. The average person is unfamiliar with his psychical peculiarities and with the varieties and trickeries of his memory. We may consider here still another point which is more directly connected with our purpose. The reports agree further that the accused persons, when they made up their minds to confess, "fabricated their stories with much ingenuity and tact, making them tally with the statements of the accusers, adding points and items that gave an air of truthfulness.". The words which we hear, the actions which we see, we remember exactly that we experienced them a long time ago. It was the one missing link in the chain of evidence of his innocence. When I saw that they had treated me mildly, inasmuch as they had started in the wine cellar and had forgotten under its genial influence, on the whole, what they had come for, I had taken only a superficial survey. Münsterberg Münsterberg : Troedel Digital. Far too often the " new " psychology has been made a kind of Jack-of-all-trades. This book contains essays on psychology and crime and eyewitness testimony. I was unable to understand how the sudden change from denial to confession was brought about. The public in the main suspects that the witness lies, while taking for granted that if he is normal and conscious of responsibility he may forget a thing, but it would not believe that he could remember the wrong thing. Yet we must not forget that there is nowhere a sharp line to be drawn between the symptoms of real mental disease and the variations in normal personalities. Her body was found, by the unfortunate defendant, lying face downwards on a manure pile in a barnyard. Even the self-accusations and the self-destructive despair of the melancholic find their counterpart in the realm of normal life; the pessimist is too often inclined to torture himself by opprobriums, to feel discouraged with himself, and to feel guilty without real guilt. We are not always sure that our functions run best when we concentrate our effort on them and turn the full light of attention on the details. It started in Germany and has had there for some years even a magazine of its own. He asserts that his only recollection of the coroner's inquest is that of seeing a revolver pointed at him. They have taken, for instance, whole epic texts and examined those lines as to which it was doubtful whether they belonged originally to the poem or were later interpolations. The Professor had spoken about a book. But the psychological assistance ought not to be confined to the discrimination of memory types and other individual differences. There is no judge and no jury, only the physician and the nurse, yet no torture of punishment can be harder than the suffering of the melancholic who feels remorse for sins which he never committed, for crimes of which he never thought before. Border with social science: Eyewitness testimony- Münsterberg was the first psychologist to research the fallibility of eyewitness testimony and the coerced extraction of confessions. Has the court sufficient means at hand to convince the jury that it must weigh all the evidence with a fair consideration of these not pathological, yet very influential, mental variations? The essential argument, however, against the trustworthiness of confessions had a purely social origin: it referred to possible promises or threats by other members of the community. When I wrote my letter, I felt certain that if I had had a chance to hypnotise the condemned man, I should have found out that some unexpected stimulus must have come in, must have snapped off the normal connections. The courts show in all other fields that the progress of science breaks new paths [p. 154] for them. Yet what responsible physician would ignore the painstaking experiments of the physiological laboratory, determining exactly the quantitative results as to the nourishing value of eggs or milk or meat or bread? But besides the omissions there were only six among the forty which did not contain positively wrong statements; in twenty-four papers up to ten per cent, of the statements were free inventions, [p. 53] and in ten answers -- hat is, in one-fourth of the papers, -- more than ten per cent. They had not entered through the window, but had broken the [p. 40] lock of the cellar door; the clock was not packed by them in wrapping paper, but in a tablecloth; the candle droppings were not on the second floor, but in the attic; the list of lost garments was to be increased by seven more pieces; and while my story under oath spoke always of two burglars, I do not know that there was more than one. In the middle of the hall first the one, then the other, shouts wild phrases; then the one falls to the ground, the other jumps on him; then a shot, and suddenly both are out of the room. Hugo Münsterberg (/ ˈ m ʊ n s t ər b ɜːr ɡ /; June 1, 1863 – December 16, 1916) was a German-American psychologist.He was one of the pioneers in applied psychology, extending his research and theories to industrial/organizational (I/O), legal, medical, clinical, educational and business settings. And because the disease does not develop perfectly new features, but simply reinforces quite ordinary tendencies, it is easy to see that there is nowhere a sharp line between the normal trait and its pathological over-functioning. There are persons who can reproduce a landscape or a painting in full vivid colours and with sharp outlines throughout the field, while they would be unable to hear internally a melody or the sound of a voice. logical research (Münsterberg, 1908; others, such as Binet and Freud, made similar, albeit . Where the alienist has to speak, that is, where pathological amnesia destroys the memory of the witness, or where hallucinations of disease, or fixed ideas deprive the witness's remembrance of their value, there the psychologist is not needed. After his appointment as an Truly, as long as a demand for further psychological inquiry appeared to the masses simply as "another way of possibly cheating justice" and as a method tending "towards emasculating court procedure and discouraging and disgusting every faithful officer of the law," the newspapers were almost in duty bound to rush on in the tracks of popular prejudice. I added at once, "It is an interesting case of dissociation and auto-suggestion; it would need probably careful treatment to build up his dissociated mind again and thus to awake in him a clear memory of his real experiences.". And no subjective feeling of certainty can be an objective criterion for the desired truth. He never sought the company of women. But I have no knowledge of having made them, and I am innocent of that crime. It seemed most natural that the President should beg the members to write down individually an exact report, inasmuch as he felt sure that the matter would come before the courts. Any imaginative thought may slip into our consciousness and may carry with it in the same way that curious feeling that it is merely the repetition of something we have experienced before. But we can abstract here from the distortions which enter into the perception itself; we have discussed them before. I did not do it, and I knew that I did not; but I do not know what I said or did during that time in the station. The whole objective performance was cut up into fourteen little parts which referred partly to actions, partly to words. Psychology has had to furnish the patent medicine for all the defects of our schools, psychology has become the word to conjure with in literature and religion, in social troubles and economic emergencies, and the public can hardly imagine how a psychologist's mail is burdened with inquiries from superstitious and unbalanced minds and with reports of uncanny and mysterious happenings.[p. The Duchy of Münsterberg (German: Herzogtum Münsterberg) or Duchy of Ziębice (Polish: Księstwo Ziębickie, Czech: Minstrberské knížectví) was one of the Duchies of Silesia, with a capital in Münsterberg (Ziębice). Intended for healthcare professionals. The sound which I produced was the tone of a large tuning-fork, which I struck with a … Hugo Münsterberg's Psychology and Law: A Historical and Contemporary Assessment (American Psychology-Law Society Series) eBook: Bornstein, Brian H., Neuschatz, Jeffrey: Amazon.com.au: Kindle Store Prince has recently analysed and described. [p. 47] The administration of an oath is partly responsible for the wrong valuation of the evidence. Let your friends describe how they have before their minds yesterday's dinner table and the conversation around it, and there will no be two whose memory shows the same scheme and method. On the contrary, we could not fulfil the purposes of our life if we did not disburden our memory constantly of superfluous matter. And this alteration may affect more and more the deeper layers of [p. 163] emotional thought and the whole man may be for a long time a new man before the outside becomes aware of it, or before he himself can explain the sudden changes in his attitudes and in his actions, in his judgments and his self-consciousness. Months have passed since the neck of the young man was broken and "thousands of persons crowded Michigan Street, jamming that thoroughfare from Clark Street to Dearborn Avenue, waiting for the undertaker's wagon to leave the jail yard." Those who did not write the report at once were, part of them, asked to write it the next day or a week later; and others had to depose their observations under cross-examination. Hugo Münsterberg (1908/1925) UNTRUE CONFESSIONS. It would be absurd to fancy that this last turn of his mind was a made-up story to escape punishment. Münsterberg's legacy: ... participants were highly trained, careful observers whose attention was concentrated on the material (Mu¨nsterberg, 1908, cited by Dolyle, ... ARCHIVAL AND FIELD STUDIES Archival studies typically rely on police files of cases that have been prosecuted. The evidence against the suspected appeared so overwhelming that they saw only one hope to save their lives -- by turning the verdict, through their untrue confession, from murder to manslaughter. The case is rare with men, but with women extremely [p. 58] frequent, and there are few women who do not know the state. Six days later the punishment of death was executed. On the Witness Stand, New York, 1908 Aus Deutsch-Amerika, Berlin, 1908 The Eternal Values, Boston, 1909 * * * * * TO MY FRIEND AND COLLEAGUE DR. FRANZ PFAFF PROFESSOR OF THERAPEUTICS IN HARVARD UNIVERSITY Psychotherapy, by Hugo Münsterberg 3 * * * * * He was one of the pioneers in applied psychology, extending his research and theories to industrial/organizational (I/O), legal, medical, clinical, educational and business settings. Christopher D. Green Dr. Christison has set forth the entire murder case in a brilliant pamphlet which few will study without becoming convinced that an innocent man has suffered death by the rope on account of untrue confessions. The correlations between attention, recollection, and feeling of certainty become the more complex the more we carefully study them. But many investigations in France and the United States tended from the start in the same direction, and the work spread rapidly over the psychological laboratories of the world. How far really his mental possibilities were influenced, how far his perceptions, memory, ideas, imaginative acts, feelings, emotions, volitions, attention, judgment and ideas of self were altered through the situation is not considered and would be certainly unimportant in ninety-nine cases out of a hundred. The scientific commission which reported the details of the inquiry came to the general statement that the majority of the observers omitted or falsified about half of the processes which occurred completely in their field of vision. It may be pure fatigue which may decrease our resistance against the creeping of deceptive illusions into our memory, Or it may be a simple emotional excitement; no doubt, the mere fact of being on the witness stand awakens in many minds, by its importance and solemnity, an excitement which is [p. 159] especially favourable for opening the memory to suggestions and to confused ideas which group themselves around some ideas with strong feeling tone. I had rushed in from the seashore as soon as the police notified me, in the fear that valuable contents of the house might have been destroyed or plundered. He had to go there to attend to his father's horse. When he came to the police station, he was told at once that he was the guilty man; but the accused denied everything. But as soon as we examine these wonderful stories, we find that the coincidences are surprising only in those cases in which the dreams and the prophecies have been written down after the realisation. He said that these people's lives could be improved by counseling and medication in many cases. She went into a trance-like state in which many disconnected memories of her early life and of happy times rushed to her consciousness, each accompanied by emotion, and these long-forgotten emotions of happiness persisted. All were completely taken by surprise, and no one, with the exception of the President, had the slighest [sic] idea that every word and action had been rehearsed beforehand, or that photographs had been taken of the scene. It was the case of a young woman who, from a most distressed, restless and suffering state, was suddenly completely changed to a state of joyful excitement and happy ecstasy. But he is expected to make up his mind as to whether the memory ideas of a witness are objective reproductions of earlier experience or are mixed up with associations and suggestions. Every lawyer knows the famous Boom case in Vermont, where the brothers confessed to having killed their brother-in-law and described the deed in full detail and how they destroyed the body; while long afterwards the "murdered" man returned alive to the village. The smallest number of mistakes gave twenty-six per cent. There is no new principle involved, of course, when the ideas which stream into consciousness spring from one's own imagination instead of being produced by the outer impressions of our surroundings. [sic] of the facts omitted; twelve omitted forty to fifty per cent., and thirteen still more than fifty per cent. Everything about that time is a blur, a blank, to me. Children do not suppress the truth, because they are naïve; the fools do not suppress it, because they are reckless; and the mind under the influence of wine does not suppress it, because the suppressing mechanism of inhibition is temporarily paralysed by alcohol. To show that they intended to return, I reported that they had left a large mantel clock, packed in wrapping paper, on the dining-room table. Münsterberg encountered immense turmoil with the outbreak of the First World War. It may be sufficient here to cite from it the following facts: On January 12, 1906, a young married woman was brutally outraged and murdered in Chicago. He may still be witness against others; but the confessions of crime which he claims to have committed himself cannot be considered as evidence under any circumstances. On this basis he was condemned to death. Existing from 1321/1322 to 1742, it was located in what came to be referred to as Lower Silesia.Its territory is similar to modern Ząbkowice Śląskie County in Poland Then two men got before me. Of course, the experiment was made under most different conditions, with different pauses, different material, different length of the series, different influences, different distribution, different subjects, but after some years of work, facts showed themselves which can stand as facts. This seems to me to hit the nail on the head exactly, and my only disagreement is with the clause "no matter who may be the criminal." Search Browse; Resources The subjective truth may thus be secured, and yet the idle talk of the drunkard and the child and the fool may be objectively untrue from beginning to end. Münsterberg's legacy: What does eyewitness research tell us about the reliability of eyewitness testimony? We know of ourselves, in a psychological sense, through the connected memory of our actions and of our experiences, and this reproducing self-consciousness is open to all the chances and defects which belong to our remembering in other fields. The prestidigitateurs, [sic] the fakirs, the spiritualists could not play their tricks if they could not rely on associations and suggestions, and it would not be so difficult to read proofs if we did not usually see the letters which we expect. For Wundt psychology should be a pure science detached from practical concerns, while Münsterberg wanted to […] I stood there, also, without prejudice against the defendant. Perhaps we can add still another motive which might induce a man in full possession of his understanding [p. 145] to declare himself guilty against his better knowledge. And from that moment everything became a blur and a blank. As to the clothes, I had simply forgotten that I had put several suits in a remote wardrobe; only later did I find it empty. The witness stand is usually located … [p. 150] Hysterical and autohypnotic states may there combine with otherwise perfectly normal behaviour, and pseudo-confessions may thus arise in men who are distinctly not ill. A slight dissociation of mind may set in which does not suggest calling for the physician at all, and which may yet affect profoundly the admissions made by the accused person. They must only understand that the working of the mental mechanism in a personality depends on the constant coöperation of simple and elementary functions which the modern laboratory experiment can isolate and test. MENU. He analyzed different psychological factors that are responsible for altering the outcomes of trials, in this book. Uniquely examines Münsterberg's thinking by adopting the layout of his seminal text, On the Witness Stand (1908) Assesses Münsterberg's legacy: what he got right, what he … As soon as the memory for our own past is completely lost, the pathological character is, of course, evident; and if the ideas which form our selves become dissociated and groups become split off as a second or third personality in us, no one doubts that such curious formations belong to the physician's domain. But does this give security for a proper rating of those illusory confessions which, like the absurdities of the Salem witches, result from the temporary abnormal states of a not-diseased brain? For many years no murder case had so deeply excited the whole city. In it, he explained that psychology was vital in the courtroom, how suggestion could create false memories and why eyewitness testimony was often unreliable (Tartakovsky, 2011). The psychologist, of course, has to reduce the complex facts to simple principles and elements. Hugo Münsterberg's Psychology and Law: A Historical and Contemporary Assessment: Amazon.it: Bornstein, Brian H., Neuschatz, Jeffrey: Libri in altre lingue and Crime), Hugo Münsterberg (1908) was highly critical of judges, attorneys, and jurors. Hugo M ü nsterberg’s On the Witness Stand: Essays on Psychology and Crime (1908) was one of the landmark books discussing the role of psychology in legal proceedings, and was one of the foundational works behind the field of forensic psychology, as it exists today. Hugo Münsterberg : biography June 1, 1863 – December 19, 1916 Sources Contributions to psychology Comparisons to Wundt and James One major point of disagreement between Wundt and Münsterberg was their opposing views on how psychology should be practiced. During the last eighteen years I have delivered about three thousand university lectures. It is in normal mental life and its border-land regions that the progress of psychological science cannot be further ignored. My letter somehow reached the papers and I became the target for editorial sharp-shooters everywhere. We found that there were, above all, two distinct classes. This crime itself, no matter [p. 142] who may be the criminal, was one of the frightful fruits of a sickly paltering with the stern administration of law. She could not remember that anything had happened which might have influenced her; but when the physician hypnotised her in the interest of her ailments, everything [p. 168] became clear. For this book report, I decided to read Hugo Münsterberg's On the Witness Stand. One of the older students suddenly shouts, "I wanted to throw light on the matter from the standpoint of Christian morality!" We do not care to remember exactly as we experienced the impressions; our perception is full of little blanks which our imaginative memory fills all the time with fitting associations, and when we remember a landscape, we want to have the picture rounded out and do not care whether the wave of the ocean had exactly this curve and whether the tree had just this number of branches. 3 Münsterberg 1908; shortly after the publication of his book, he was mercilessly satirized by the celebrated evidence scholar John Wigmore, who put Münsterberg himself “on … It excludes the careless, hasty, chance recollection, and stirs the deliberate attention of the witness. Justice would less often miscarry if all who are to weigh evidence were more conscious of the treachery of human memory. The other case of direct perception is open to a similar objection. When he observed the body, he at once reported the matter to his father at the house, [p. 164] and the father notified the police. "Harvard's Contempt of Court" is the big heading here, "Science Gone [p. 140] Crazy" the heading there, and so it went on in the papers, while every mail brought an epistolary chorus. Japans kunst mit 161 textabbildungen und Stafeln in farbendruck (1908) (Reprint) [Leatherbound] Münsterberg, Oskar, 1865-1920. Yet, who will decide when the limit is reached where we forget and supplement too much: nowhere is the borderland region broader and nowhere more important for the psychology of the court-room. If those simplest elements are understood, their complex combination becomes necessary; just as the whole of a geometrical curve becomes necessary as soon as its analytical formula is understood for the smallest part. In 1908 he published On the Witness Stand, which was influential to the development of forensic psychology. Subtler experiments which were carried on in my laboratory for a long time showed that this subjective feeling of certainty can not only obtain in different degrees, but has, with different individuals, quite different mental structure and meaning. He alternated between gay and morose moods. [p. 141] And if the sensational press did not manifest a judicial temper, that seemed this time very excusable. ... (1908), was one of the earliest influences in the field of Psychology and Law1. All of his friends thought him decidedly trusting and credulous and absent-minded. And yet we have not even touched one factor which, more than anything else, devastates memory and plays havoc with our best intended recollections: that is, the power of suggestion. My memory serves me therefore rather generously. Only a short time before a lady had come to me who showed quite similar blanks of memory for [p. 167] several days, filling the gap with imaginative ideas, and she too did not understand why her personality had been changed so suddenly. *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. Ann Foster at Salem Village confessed in 1692 [p. 147] that the devil appeared to her in the shape of a bird at several times. The psychologist would upset this satisfaction completely. Finally, as to the amount of clothes which they had taken, I asserted that the burglars did not get more than a specified list which I had given the police. The church was empty and, as she communed with herself, her hopelessness deepened. Hugo Münsterberg (/ ˈ m ʊ n s t ər b ɜːr ɡ /; June 1, 1863 – December 16, 1916) was a German-American psychologist.He was one of the pioneers in applied psychology, extending his research and theories to industrial/organizational (I/O), legal, medical, clinical, educational and business settings. [sic] of the statements were absolutely false, in spite of the fact that they all came from scientifically trained observers. Yet the theoretical question may perhaps demand no later than to-morrow a practical answer, when perhaps again a weak mind shall work itself into an untrue confession and the community again rely thereon satisfied, hypnotised by the spell of the dangerous belief that "murder will out." All this remains entirely within the limits of the normal healthy individuality. His M.D efforts such scientifically exact observations mind and his particular variations escape his attention testimony arose from called. They looked at each picture for fifteen seconds [ p. 154 ] for them too sufficient proof of,! Witches was often not at all guilty of the statements were absolutely false, in the recollection in. Of the protocol should still be done in a barnyard it as a reference many... 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